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Found 19 results

  1. Where is ENSO stress balanced? Authors: Matthias Münnich and David Neelin First Published: 20th November, 2003 Published online: 14th April, 2004 Abstract: The zonal surface torque budget associated with the tropical wind stress anomalies during El Niño/Southern Oscillation is analyzed. Mountain and surface stress torques over South America are found to play a prominent role. Local momentum change is negligible for 6 month averages allowing the balance among regional contributions to the torque anomalies to be compared. During El Niño, eastward torque anomalies over the central equatorial Pacific are largely compensated by westward anomalies elsewhere in the equatorial band, notably over South America. Torque anomalies over South America and the Pacific in latitude bands north and south of the equator are both westward and are not compensated within the band, implying an export of eastward momentum to higher latitudes. Copyright © 2003 Royal Meteorological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Link to full paper:
  2. Progress in research of stratosphere-troposphere interactions: Application of isentropic potential vorticity dynamics and the effects of the Tibetan Plateau Authors: Rongcai Ren, Guoxiong Wu, Ming Cai, Shuyue Sun, Xin Liu and Weiping Li Published: 19th October, 2014 Abstract: This paper reviews recent progress in understanding isentropic potential vorticity (PV) dynamics during interactions between the stratosphere and troposphere, including the spatial and temporal propagation of circulation anomalies associated with the winter polar vortex oscillation and the mechanisms of stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the global mass circulation framework. The origins and mechanisms of interannual variability in the stratospheric circulation are also reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the role of the Tibetan Plateau as a PV source (via its thermal forcing) in the global and East Asian atmospheric circulation. Diagnosis of meridional isentropic PV advection over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia indicates that the distributions of potential temperature and PV over the east flank of the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia favor a downward and southward isentropic transport of high PV from the stratosphere to the troposphere. This transport manifests the possible influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the dynamic coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere during summer, and may provide a new framework for understanding the climatic effects of the Tibetan Plateau. Link to full paper: Ren Wu etc JMR_QXXB.pdf
  3. Effect of Yunnan–Guizhou Topography at the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau on the Indian Monsoon Authors: Zhengguo Shi (Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, et al), Yingying Sha and Xiaodong Liu Published: 27th October, 2016 Abstract: Topographic insulation is one of the primary origins for the influence of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on Asian climate. The Yunnan–Guizhou (YG) Plateau, at the southeastern margin of the TP, is known to block the northern branch of the Indian monsoon circulation in summer. However, it is an open question whether this blocking feeds back to the monsoon. In this study, the effect of the YG topography on the Indian monsoon and its comparison with that of the TP were evaluated using general circulation model experiments. The results showed that the TP strengthens the monsoon precipitation, especially during the onset. However, the YG topography significantly weakens the monsoon. With the YG topography, strengthened low-level airflow around the YG Plateau induces anomalous anticyclonic winds to the southwest, and the changes remodulate the whole circulation structure over Asia. As a result, the Indian monsoon becomes weakened from the Bay of Bengal to the Indian subcontinent and Arabian Sea, as does the associated precipitation. In addition, the YG topography affects the anomalous warming center over the TP and the precipitation during the monsoon onset. The YG-reduced summer precipitation occupied approximately one-third of the total increment compared to the entire TP. The Indian monsoon weakened by YG topography distinctly opposes the traditional paleoclimatic viewpoint that all of the TP topography contributes to the monsoon strengthening. In fact, the climatic effect of the TP depends closely upon both its central and marginal topography, and the topography of its subterrains does not necessarily play a similar role. Link to full paper:
  4. Effects of Parameterized Orographic Drag on Weather Forecasting and Simulated Climatology Over East Asia During Boreal Summer Authors: Hyun‐Joo Choi, Suk‐Jin Choi, Myung‐Seo Koo, Jung‐Eun Kim, Young Cheol Kwon and Song‐You Hong Published: 25th September, 2017 Abstract: The impact of subgrid orographic drag on weather forecasting and simulated climatology over East Asia in boreal summer is examined using two parameterization schemes in a global forecast model. The schemes consider gravity wave drag (GWD) with and without lower‐level wave breaking drag (LLWD) and flow‐blocking drag (FBD). Simulation results from sensitivity experiments verify that the scheme with LLWD and FBD improves the intensity of a summertime continental high over the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, which is exaggerated with GWD only. This is because the enhanced lower tropospheric drag due to the effects of lower‐level wave breaking and flow blocking slows down the wind flowing out of the high‐pressure system in the lower troposphere. It is found that the decreased lower‐level divergence induces a compensating weakening of middle‐ to upper‐level convergence aloft. Extended experiments for medium‐range forecasts for July 2013 and seasonal simulations for June to August of 2013–2015 are also conducted. Statistical skill scores for medium‐range forecasting are improved not only in low‐level winds but also in surface pressure when both LLWD and FBD are considered. A simulated climatology of summertime monsoon circulation in East Asia is also realistically reproduced. Link to full paper: Not available as behind the AGU100 paywall but there video presentation at the AMS 17th Conference on "Mesoscale Processes" held at Coral Reef Harbor, Crowne Plaza, San Diego between 24th and 27th July, 2017. Link to conference video presentation :
  5. Effects of the Tibetan Plateau - A Chapter from the book "The Asian Monsoon" Authors: Michio Yanai and Guo-Xiong Wu First Published: January, 2006; updated on: 26th August, 2017 Abstract: The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai–Xizang Plateau) extends over the latitude–longitude domain of 25–458N, 70–1058E, with a size of about one-quarter of the Chinese territory and a mean elevation of more than 4,000 m above sea level (Figure 13.1, color section). Surface elevation changes rapidly across the boundaries of the Plateau, especially the southern boundary, and strong contrasts exist between the western and eastern parts in land surface features, vegetation, and meteorological characteristics (e.g., Ye and Gao, 1979b; Smith and Shi, 1995). At these altitudes the mass of the atmosphere over the surface is only 60% that at sea level. Because of the lower densities, various radiative processes over the Plateau, particularly in the boundary layer, are quite distinct from those over lower elevated regions (e.g., Liou and Zhou, 1987; Smith and Shi, 1992; Shi and Smith, 1992). Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau exerts profound thermal and dynamical influences on atmospheric circulation. Link to full paper: file:///C:/Users/David/Downloads/4.YanaiWu_effectsofTPChapter13AsianMonsoon.pdf
  6. Mongolian Mountains Matter Most: Impacts of Latitude & Height of Asian Orography on Pacific Wintertime Atmospheric Circulation Authors: R. H. White Published: 12th January, 2017 Abstract: The impacts of Asian orography on the wintertime atmospheric circulation over the Pacific are explored using altered-orography, semi-idealized, general circulation model experiments. The latitude of orography is found to be far more important than height. The Mongolian Plateau and nearby mountain ranges, centered at ~48°N, have an impact on the upper-level wintertime jet stream that is approximately 4 times greater than that of the larger and taller Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas to the south. Key contributing factors to the importance of the Mongolian mountains are latitudinal variations in the meridional potential vorticity gradient and the strength of the impinging wind—both of which determine the amplitude of the atmospheric response—and the structure of the atmosphere, which influences the spatial pattern of the downstream response. Interestingly, while the Mongolian mountains produce a larger response than the Tibetan Plateau in Northern Hemisphere winter, in April–June the response from the Tibetan Plateau predominates. This result holds in two different general circulation models. In experiments with idealized orography, varying the plateau latitude by 20°, from 43° to 63°N, changes the response amplitude by a factor of 2, with a maximum response for orography between 48° and 53°N, comparable to the Mongolian mountains. In these idealized experiments, the latitude of the maximum wintertime jet increase changes by only ~6°. It is proposed that this nearly invariant spatial response pattern is due to variations in the stationary wavenumber with latitude leading to differences in the zonal versus meridional wave propagation. Link to full paper:
  7. Distinct impacts of the Mongolian and Tibetan Plateaus on the evolution of the East Asian monsoon Authors: Yingying Sha, Zhengguo Shi, Xiaodong Liu and Zhisheng An Published: 4th May, 2015 Abstract: The Mongolian Plateau (MP), which is relatively lower in altitude and smaller in extent than the Tibetan Plateau (TP), has received little attention about its climate effect. Building upon previous work in which we highlighted the role of the MP on the high‐level westerly jet stream, the response of surface‐level features of the Asian climate is examined in this study. The results show that the Indian and East Asian summer monsoonal and inland precipitation are mainly enhanced by the uplift of the TP. The precipitation during the onset of the summer monsoon is also intensified over India and eastern China. In addition, the East Asian monsoon domain is significantly expanded with the uplift of the TP, while the Indian summer monsoon domain does not change obviously. The MP plays a significant role in the strengthening of the East Asian winter monsoon, which is larger than the TP. With the uplift of the MP, the cold northerly wind in winter intensifies significantly in East Asia from higher latitudes to the South China Sea. The Siberian high is also enhanced and moves remarkably northward to its modern location. The strengthening of the Asian winter monsoon is related to the MP‐induced diversion of westerly wind. The bypassing flows around the plateau modify the temperature advections over middle latitudes and the atmosphere thermal structure in winter, which leads to the strengthening of the East Asian winter monsoon. Link to full paper:
  8. On the Influence of the Earth's Orography on the General Character of the Westerlies Authors: B. Bolin Published: 15th May, 1950 Abstract: The upper westerlies in middle latitudes possess, in the mean, a wave‐like character which has been explained as a result of thermal contrasts between land and sea. On the other hand, recent theoretical investigations by Queney, Charney and Eliassen have shown that an obstacle of the dimensions of the Rocky Mountains generates a wave pattern downstream whose scale is comparable to the observed mean waves. In the present paper these theoretical studies are extended, and an attempt is made to discuss, in a general way, the influence of the northern hemisphere mountains on the character of the westerlies. Finally the paper points out some of the climatic consequences of the proposed dynamic‐topographic control of the prevailing flow patterns. REFERENCES Link to full paper:
  9. The Effects of Mountains on the General Circulation of the Atmosphere as Identified by Numerical Experiments Authors: Syukuro Manabe and Theodore B. Terpstra Published: 26th June, 1973 Abstract: In order to identify the effects of mountains upon the general circulation of the atmosphere, a set of numerical experiments is performed by use of a general circulation model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of NOAA. The numerical time integrations of the model are performed with and without the effects of mountains. By comparing the structure of the model atmospheres that emerged from these two numerical experiments, it is possible to discuss the role of mountains in maintaining the stationary and transient disturbances in the atmosphere. The model adopted for this study has a global computational domain and covers both the troposphere and stratosphere. For the computation of radiative transfer, the distribution of incoming solar radiation in January is assumed. Over the ocean, the observed distribution of the sea surface temperature of February is assumed as a lower boundary condition of the model. Over the continental surface, temperature is determined such that the condition of heat balance at the ground surface is satisfied. The mountain topography is taken into consideration using the so-called σ-coordinate system in which pressure normalized by surface pressure is used as a vertical coordinate. The grid size for the computation of horizontal finite differences is chosen to be about 250 km. Nine finite-difference levels are chosen in unequal pressure intervals so that these levels can represent not only the structure of the mid-troposphere but also that of the stratosphere and the planetary boundary layer. The results of the numerical experiments indicate that it is necessary to consider the effects of mountains for the successful simulation of the stationary flow field in the atmosphere, particularly in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. As predicted by Bolin, the flow field in the upper troposphere of the mountain model has a stationary trough in the lees of major mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau. To the east of the trough, an intense westerly flow predominates. In the stratosphere, an anticyclone develops over the Aleutian Archipelago. These features of the mountain model, which are missing in the model without mountains, are in good qualitative agreement with the features of the actual atmosphere in winter. In the model troposphere, mountains increase markedly the kinetic energy of stationary disturbances by increasing the stationary component of the eddy conversion of potential energy, whereas mountains decrease the kinetic energy of transient disturbances. The sum of the stationary and transient eddy kinetic energy is affected little by mountains. In the model stratosphere, mountains increase the amplitude of stationary disturbances partly because they enhance the energy supply from the model troposphere to the stratosphere. According to wavenumber analysis, the longitudinal scale of eddy conversion in the model atmosphere increases significantly due to the effects of mountains. This increase results mainly from the large increase of stationary eddy conversion which takes place at very low wavenumbers. The results of the analysis reveal other important effects of mountains. For example, the probability of cyclogenesis in the model atmosphere increases significantly on the lee side of major mountain ranges where the core of the westerly jet is located. Also, mountains affect the hydrologic processes in the model atmosphere by modifying the field of three-dimensional advection of moisture, and alter the global distribution of precipitation very significantly. In general, the distribution of the model with mountains is less zonal and more realistic than that of the model without mountains. Link to full paper:<0003%3ATEOMOT>2.0.CO%3B2
  10. Atmospheric forcing mechanisms of polar motion Authors: J Stuck, Florian Seitz and Mick Thomas Published: January, 2005 Abstract: The polar motion consists of free and forced oscillations which are influenced by mass variations in the Earth system. The contribution of the atmosphere to the excitation of the polar motion is investigated by forcing the dynamic Earth system model DyMEG with atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and by multivariate statistical analyses of the regional representation of the AAM. The analyses are performed with the ECHAM3-T21 and the ECHAM4-T42 global circlation models, which are only forced by observed sea surface temperatures. For validation, the NCEP-reanalysis is used. The model results of DyMEG show, that the annual oscillation of polar motion is predominantly due to atmospheric pressure forcing, while the motion component is less important. A regional statistical analysis of the AAM due to mass variations presents an anomaly pattern which consists of strong annual pressure variations located over Asia, in particular at the Himalaya. This annual atmospheric pushing and pulling on the Earth above the Asian continent turns out to be the primary component responsible for accelerating the forced polar motion. These pressure variations are also active on higher frequencies connected with rapid polar motions. The results reveals, that atmospheric forcing is sufficient to excite the Chandler wobble (CW). Neither a significant nor at least an increased signal in the frequency domain of 14 to 16 months exists and regional statistical analysis of AAM give no hint for an oscillation with a typical time scale of 14 to 16 months. Hence, the CW seems to be excited by stochastic processes in the atmosphere. Link to full paper:
  11. Annual atmospheric torques: Processes and regional contributions Authors: Olivier de Viron, Jean O. Dickey and Steven L. Marcus Published: 12th April, 2002 Abstract: All three components of annual atmospheric torque are analyzed with a focus on understanding the contributions from various sources and the physical interactions involved. The annual variations of the equatorial component are dominated by the torque on Earth's ellipticity, with the X component mainly due to an anomaly over the Himalayas, and the Y component associated with pressure anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. The axial annual component is due to the combined effect of friction and mountain torque, whose amplitudes are at the same order of magnitude with the friction term being larger. Partial cancellation of the mountain torque over Asia and North America is effected by the out‐of phase contribution of the Andes (South America having the opposite seasonal cycle to Asia and North America). Link to full paper:
  12. Axial Angular Momentum: Vertical Fluxes and Response to Torques Authors: Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka Published: 4th November, 2003 Abstract: The horizontally averaged global angular momentum μ at a certain height reacts only to the vertical divergence of the angular momentum flux at least above the crest height of the earth's orography. The flux is tied to the torques at the surface. Data are used to evaluate the flux and the response of μ to the torques. It is shown that the accuracy of the data is sufficient for an investigation of this interaction. It is found that the horizontally averaged angular momentum in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere tends to be negative before an event of positive friction torque. Downward transports of negative angular momentum from these layers allow the angular momentum to further decrease near the ground, even shortly before the event although the friction torque is positive at that time. The impact of the mountains during this process is demonstrated. The ensuing positive response to the friction torque is felt throughout the troposphere. The final decay of this reaction involves downward transports of μ with typical velocities of ∼1–2 km day−1. The angular momentum in the lower troposphere tends to be negative before an event of positive mountain torque. There is a short burst of rapid upward transport of positive angular momentum during the event itself, which reaches the stratosphere within 1–2 days. A phase of decay follows with slow downward transport of positive angular momentum. Link to full paper:<1294%3AAAMVFA>2.0.CO%3B2
  13. The Dynamics of Intraseasonal Atmospheric Angular Momentum Oscillations Authors: Dr Klaus M. Weickmann, George N. Kiladis and Prashant D. Sardeshmuykh Published: 17th October, 1996 Abstract: The global and zonal atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) budget is computed from seven years of National Centers for Environmental Prediction data and a composite budget of intraseasonal (30–70 day) variations during northern winter is constructed. Regressions on the global AAM tendency are used to produce maps of outgoing longwave radiation, 200-hPa wind, surface stress, and sea level pressure during the composite AAM cycle. The primary synoptic features and surface torques that contribute to the AAM changes are described. In the global budget, the friction and mountain torques contribute about equally to the AAM tendency. The friction torque peaks in phase with subtropical surface easterly wind anomalies in both hemispheres. The mountain torque peaks when anomalies in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere and subtropical Southern Hemisphere are weak but of the same sign. The picture is different for the zonal mean budget, in which the meridional convergence of the northward relative angular momentum transport and the friction torque are the dominant terms. During the global AAM cycle, zonal AAM anomalies move poleward from the equator to the subtropics primarily in response to momentum transports. These transports are associated with the spatial covariance of the filtered (30–70 day) perturbations with the climatological upper-tropospheric flow. The zonally asymmetric portion of these perturbations develop when convection begins over the Indian Ocean and maximize when convection weakens over the western Pacific Ocean. The 30–70-day zonal mean friction torque results from 1) the surface winds induced by the upper-tropospheric momentum sources and sinks and 2) the direct surface wind response to warm pool convection anomalies. The signal in relative AAM is complemented by one in “Earth” AAM associated with meridional redistributions of atmospheric mass. This meridional redistribution occurs preferentially over the Asian land mass and is linked with the 30–70-day eastward moving convective signal. It is preceded by a surface Kelvin-like wave in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere that propagates eastward from the western Pacific region to the South American topography and then moves poleward as an edge wave along the Andes. This produces a mountain torque on the Andes, which also causes the regional and global AAM to change. Link to full paper:<1445%3ATDOIAA>2.0.CO%3B2
  14. Mountains, the Global Frictional Torque, and the Circulation over the Pacific–North American Region Authors: Klaus Weickmann Published: 2nd April, 2003 Abstract: The global mountain (τM ) and frictional (τF ) torques are lag correlated within the intraseasonal band, with τF leading τM. The correlation accounts for 20%–45% of their variance. Two basic feedbacks contribute to the relationship. First, the mountain torque forces global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) anomalies and the frictional torque damps them; thus, dτF/dt ∝ −τM. Second, frictional torque anomalies are associated with high-latitude sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies, which contribute to subsequent mountain torque anomalies; thus, dτM/dt ∝ τF. These feedbacks help determine the growth and decay of global AAM anomalies on intraseasonal timescales. The low-frequency intraseasonal aspect of the relationship is studied for northern winter through lag regressions on τF. The linear Madden–Julian oscillation signal is first removed from τF to focus the analysis on midlatitude dynamical processes. The decorrelation timescale of τF is similar to that of teleconnection patterns and zonal index cycles, and these familiar circulation features play a prominent role in the regressed circulation anomalies. The results show that an episode of interaction between the torques is initiated by an amplified transport of zonal mean–zonal momentum across 35°N. This drives a dipole pattern of zonal mean–zonal wind anomalies near 25° and 50°N, and associated SLP anomalies. The SLP anomalies at higher latitudes play an important role in the subsequent evolution. Regionally, the momentum transport is linked with large-scale eddies over the east Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that have an equivalent barotropic vertical structure. As these eddies persist/amplify, baroclinic wave trains disperse downstream over North American and east Asian topography. The wave trains interact with the preexisting, high-latitude SLP anomalies and drive them southward, east of the mountains. This initiates a large monopole mountain torque anomaly in the 20°–50°N latitude band. The wave trains associated with the mountain torque produce additional momentum flux convergence anomalies that 1) maintain the zonal wind anomalies forced by the original momentum transport anomalies and 2) help drive a global frictional torque anomaly that counteracts the mountain torque. Global AAM anomalies grow and decay over a 2-week period, on average. Over the Pacific–North American region, the wave trains evolve into the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern whose surface wind anomalies produce a large portion of the compensating frictional torque anomaly. Case studies from two recent northern winters illustrate the interaction. Link to full paper:<2608%3AMTGFTA>2.0.CO%3B2
  15. Mountain Torque Events at the Tibetan Plateau Authors: Joseph Egger and Klause-Peter Hoinka First Published: 19th December 2006 Abstract: The interaction of large-scale wave systems with the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is investigated by regressing pressure, potential temperature, winds, precipitation, and selected fluxes in winter onto the three components Toi of this massif’s mountain torque on the basis of the 40-yr ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) data. Events with respect to the equatorial “Greenwich” axis of the global angular momentum exhibit by far the largest torques (To1,), which essentially represent north–south pressure differences across the TP. The axial torque To3 peaks when the surface pressure is high at the eastern slope of the TP. The torque To2 with respect to the 90°E axis is closely related to To3 with To2 To3. The maximum (minimum) of To1 tends to occur about 1 day earlier than the minimum (maximum) of To2. All torque events are initiated by equivalent barotropic perturbations moving eastward along the northern rim of the TP. In general, the initial depression, for example, forms a southward-protruding extension at the eastern slope of the TP and a new high grows near Japan. Later, the perturbation near Japan moves eastward in To2 events but extends northward in To1 events. These flow developments cannot be explained by theories of topographic instability. The observed vertical motion at the lee slope is at best partly consistent with theories of linear quasigeostrophic wave motion along mountain slopes. These findings lead the authors to test the eventual usefulness of linear theories by fitting the linear terms of a novel statistical equation for the potential temperature to the observed changes of and the torque to the observations. This test indicates that the evolving regression patterns of can be explained by linear terms at least in specific domains. In turn, pressure tendency regressions at a selected level can be calculated on the basis of the linear tendencies above that level. The formation of the lee trough appears to be mainly caused by horizontal warm-air advection along the slopes, but changes of the potential temperature above the height of the TP also contribute significantly to the pressure changes in the lee. Cold-air advection aloft strengthens the Japan high. “Turbulent” transports appear to be mainly responsible for the decay of the perturbations but data accuracy problems impede the analysis. In particular, the noisiness of the vertical motion fields affects the skill of the linear calculation Link to full paper:
  16. Regional Sources of Mountain Torque Variability and High-Frequency Fluctuations in Atmospheric Angular Momentum Authors: Haig Iskenderian and David A. Salstein First Published: 23rd May, 1997 Abstract: The sources of high-frequency (⩽14 day) fluctuations in global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) are investigated using several years of surface torque and AAM data. The midlatitude mountain torque associated with the Rockies, Himalayas, and Andes is found to be responsible for much of the high-frequency fluctuations in AAM, whereas the mountain torque in the Tropics and polar regions as well as the friction torque play a much lesser role on these timescales. A maximum in the high-frequency mountain torque variance occurs during the cool season of each hemisphere, though the Northern Hemisphere maximum substantially exceeds that of the Southern. This relationship indicates the seasonal role played by each hemisphere in the high-frequency fluctuations of global AAM. A case study reveals that surface pressure changes near the Rockies and Himalayas produced by mobile synoptic-scale systems as they traversed these mountains contributed to a large fluctuation in mountain torque and a notable high-frequency change in global AAM in mid-March 1996. This event was also marked by a rapid fluctuation in length of day (LOD), independently verifying the direct transfer of angular momentum from the atmosphere to solid earth below. A composite study of the surface pressure patterns present during episodes of high-frequency fluctuations in AAM reveals considerable meridional elongation of the surface pressure systems along the mountain ranges, thus establishing an extensive cross-mountain surface pressure gradient and producing a large torque. The considerable along-mountain extent of these surface pressure systems may help to explain the ability of individual synoptic-scale systems to affect the global AAM. Furthermore, midlatitude synoptic-scale systems tend to be most frequent in the cool season of each hemisphere, consistent with the contemporary maximum in hemispheric high-frequency mountain torque variance. Link to full paper:<1681%3ARSOMTV>2.0.CO%3B2
  17. Mountain Torques and Northern Hemisphere Low-Frequency Variability.Part II: Regional Aspects Authors: Francois Lott, Andrew W. Robertson and Michael Ghil First Published: 16th November 2001 (published online: 1st June , 2004) Abstract: Important aspects of low-frequency variability (LFV) are regional in character, while the mountain torques of the Rockies and the Himalayas evolve quite independently of each other. The hemispheric analysis of Part I is complemented therefore herein by an analysis of the relationships between individual mountain torques and sectorial LFV patterns in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. In the 20–30-day band, relationships are found between the Rockies (Himalayas) torque and the dominant patterns of LFV over the Pacific (Eurasia). The composites of the atmospheric flow fields that accompany the Rockies (Himalayas) torque in this band exhibit similarities with known low-frequency oscillations that dominate the Pacific and North American (European and North Atlantic) sectors during certain winters. The composites keyed to the 20–30-day Rockies torque affect the persistent North Pacific (PNP) pattern that controls the extension of the midlatitude jet stream over the eastern Pacific. Furthermore, the unfiltered torques for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Rockies anticipate the onset of the two dominant winter Pacific circulation regimes that correlate strongly with the PNP pattern. The composites keyed to the 20–30-day Himalayas torque affect the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern, which controls the intensity of the North Atlantic jet stream. Furthermore, the unfiltered torques for the NH and the Himalayas anticipate the breaks of the two dominant winter Atlantic circulation regimes, which correlate strongly with the NAO pattern. These analyses also show that the 20–30-day Rockies (Himalayas) torques produce substantial atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) changes, which are nearly in phase with and larger in amplitude than the AAM changes associated with the midlatitude eastern Pacific (North Atlantic) jet stream variations seen in the composite maps. This result suggests that the Rockies (Himalayas) torque variations drive, at least partially, but actively the changes in the eastern Pacific (North Atlantic) jet stream. These results are consistent with the Himalayas and the Rockies torques contributing separately to changes in the two leading hemispheric EOFs that were described in Part I; the two are associated with a hemispheric index cycle and the Arctic Oscillation, respectively. Link to full paper:<1272%3AMTANHL>2.0.CO%3B2
  18. Sudden Stratospheric Warming: Causes & Effects Authors: Randall Gates Simpson Published: 22nd April, 2013 Abstract (none): ***I highly recommend this amateur article - clear explanations with many charts and diagrams*** In this post I reveal what I think is an original synthesis that gives the full picture of some of the main causes and effects of Northern Hemisphere Sudden Stratospheric Warming events based on my readings of many other papers along with hours of my own original research. For research material I relied heavily on the use of the amazing amount of satellite derived reanalysis data as well as ground based observations. Link to full paper:
  19. On the Three-Dimensional Propagation of Stationary Waves Authors: R. Alan Plumb Published: 1st February, 1985 Abstract: A locally applicable (nonzonally-averaged) conservation relation is derived for quasi-geostrophic stationary waves on a zonal flow, a generalization of the Eliassen-Palm relation. The flux which appears in this relation constitutes, it is argued, a useful diagnostic of the three-dimensional propagation of stationary wave activity. This is illustrated by application to a simple theoretical model of a forced Rossby wave train and to a Northern Hemisphere winter climatology. Results of the latter procedure suggest that the major forcing of the stationary wave field derives from the orographic effects of the Tibetan plateau and from nonorographic effects (diabatic heating and/or interaction with transient eddies) in the western North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans and Siberia. No evidence is found in the data for wave trains of tropical origin; forcing by the orographic effects of the Rocky mountains seems to be of secondary importance. Link to full paper:<0217%3AOTTDPO>2.0.CO%3B2
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