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  1. Links Section In This Post, below the intro. I have been recently asked to start a thread, to talk about weather teleconnections and similar topics. This is often a topic not very well discussed on other weather places, and places like Twitter. We have a number of experts, enthusiasts, and meteorologists, who are knowledgeable in this area. So this is a thread for technical discussion about the teleconnections, etc, as well as a place for questions about these topics. We need to start talking about these climate drivers more, as they are the key to unlocking medium-long term forecasts. We are making a place for technical discussion about these factors away from the main thread/s. So this thread is born. Teleconnections that could be up for discussion are: MJO, AAM/GWO, NAO, RRWT, NP jet, Mountain & Frictional Torques, AO/AAO, ENSO, IOD, AMO, SSTs in general, SOI, QBO, the Stratosphere, etc. Feel free to talk about related topics, but stick to this general topic. I encourage all posters to discuss and pose questions relating to the topic, and keep it a relaxed atmosphere. Any questions, just PM me or comment here. Hope we can make this work Links Section ERSL Link, Up to 24 hours behind. GWO 90 day Victor Gensini Site. Features Total AAM, Bias Corrected Rel AAM GEFS, CFS GWO Forecast. He stated he is soon to add torque products. Nick Schraldi GWO Site Non-Bias Corrected GEFS GWO forecast. Michael Ventrice Hovmoller from MV, to help spot AAM trends and patterns. GEFS. Carl Schreck More Hovmollers and other tropical charts to spot trends in the AAM. CFS forecast. NPJ Phase Diagrams/Albany Shows a GEFS forecast and observation of NP jetstream, which is largely controlled by the AAM. From @Bring Back 1962-63: Since the service provided through WDT was withdrawn there was a gap in this vitally important data. I've been in touch with Ed Berry, who along with Dr Klaus Weickmann (who retired 2 years ago) developed the GSDM (I posted on that on both the 33 and NetWx forums with Ed's excellent presentation earlier this year) and he told me that a friend of his still processes this data. He has kindly provided a link to that site plus the access user name and password: un = gsdm01 pw = gu3st#1 That will take you to this page where you'll find a lot more than just the ex WDT data: Monitoring of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum (AAM) Budget NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis DAILY DATA Vertically-integrated 5-day running mean: 1968-1997 Climatology Plots show some of the features: MJO, SUB-MONTHLY, & RAPID TRANSITIONS. ( Plots contain data through (MM/DD/YYYY) = 09/26/2018 ) PLOTS LATEST 90 DAYS LATEST 90 DAYS w/ Seasonal Cycle CURRENT YEAR CURRENT YEAR w/ Seasonal Cycle Data Files AAM data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:48 CDT) AAM 1-21 data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:50 CDT) TAUC data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:57 CDT) TAUF data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:57 CDT) TAUG data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:57 CDT) TAUM data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:35:57 CDT) TEND data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:36:00 CDT) TEND (1-21) data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:36:02 CDT) TRANSP data file (Updated: Friday, 28-Sep-2018 08:36:00 CDT) MONTHLY DATA Vertically-integrated: 1968-1997 Climatology Plots show some of the features: ENSO, QBO, & TRENDS. ( Plots contain data through 08/31/2018 ) PLOTS 1958-PRESENT: Total Fields 1958-PRESENT: Anomaly Fields MJO Composites:
  2. Bring Back 1962-63

    Studies of atmospheric angular momentum

    Studies of atmospheric angular momentum Authors: NOAA, Climate Diagnostics Center, Science Review Published: 25th/26th July, 2001 Chapter 4: Empirical and Process Studies Introduction to chapter 4, part 3: Atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) provides a convenient framework to study the role of mountains, surface wind stresses and various transport mechanisms in variability ranging from intraseasonal to interdecadal and beyond. Quantitative studies are feasible with current global assimilated datasets which show a good budget balance for global integrals, intraseasonal variations and during northern winter/spring. The budgets get much worse when gravity wave drag is included, if zonal integrals are considered or during summer/fall seasons. AAM is useful as an index of the large scale zonal flow since it is highly correlated with independent length-of-day measurements and with phenomena such as the QBO, ENSO, the MJO and possibly global warming. CDC scientists have examined several aspects of AAM variability, including: the link to MJO tropical convection, a linear model of global AAM and its torques, the global AAM budget imbalances due to gravity wave drag, the forcing for the semiannual seasonal component of AAM and the AAM response to global warming in an ensemble of coupled ocean-atmosphere model runs. CDC also monitors in real time the complete vertically integrated budget as part of its web-based maproom activities and distributes AAM and torque data to other researchers. Link to full paper: Link to Introduction to Chapter 4: Link to full Science Review:
  3. Annual atmospheric torques: Processes and regional contributions Authors: Olivier de Viron, Jean O. Dickey and Steven L. Marcus Published: 12th April, 2002 Abstract: All three components of annual atmospheric torque are analyzed with a focus on understanding the contributions from various sources and the physical interactions involved. The annual variations of the equatorial component are dominated by the torque on Earth's ellipticity, with the X component mainly due to an anomaly over the Himalayas, and the Y component associated with pressure anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. The axial annual component is due to the combined effect of friction and mountain torque, whose amplitudes are at the same order of magnitude with the friction term being larger. Partial cancellation of the mountain torque over Asia and North America is effected by the out‐of phase contribution of the Andes (South America having the opposite seasonal cycle to Asia and North America). Link to full paper:
  4. Atmospheric torques and Earth’s rotation: what drove the millisecond-level length-of-day response to the 2015–2016 El Niño? Authors: Sébastien B. Lambert, Steven L. Marcus and Olivier de Viron Published: 14th November, 2017 Abstract El Ninõ-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are classically associated with a significant increase in the length of day (LOD), with positive mountain torques arising from an east-west pressure dipole in the Pacific driving a rise of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and consequent slowing of the Earth's rotation. The large 1982-1983 event produced a lengthening of the day of about 0.9 ms, while a major ENSO event during the 2015-2016 winter season produced an LOD excursion reaching 0.81 ms in January 2016. By evaluating the anomaly in mountain and friction torques, we found that (i) as a mixed eastern-central Pacific event, the 2015-2016 mountain torque was smaller than for the 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 events, which were pure eastern Pacific events, and (ii) the smaller mountain torque was compensated for by positive friction torques arising from an enhanced Hadley-type circulation in the eastern Pacific, leading to similar AAM-LOD signatures for all three extreme ENSO events. The 2015-2016 event thus contradicts the existing paradigm that mountain torques cause the Earth rotation response for extreme El Ninõ events. Link to full paper:
  5. The Angular Momentum Budget of the Transformed Eulerian Mean Equations Authors: Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka Published: 24th April, 2008 Abstract: The axial angular momentum (AAM) budget of zonal atmospheric annuli extending from the surface to a given height and over meridional belts is discussed within the framework of conventional and transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) theory. Conventionally, it is only fluxes of AAM through the boundaries and/or torques at the surface that are able to change the AAM of an annulus. TEM theory introduces new torques in the budget related to the vertically integrated Eliassen–Palm flux divergence and also new AAM fluxes of the residual difference circulation. Some of these torques are displayed for various annuli. In particular, the application of TEM theory generates a large positive torque at tropospheric upper boundaries in the global case. This torque is much larger than the global mountain and friction torques but is cancelled exactly by the new vertical AAM fluxes through the upper boundary. It is concluded that the TEM approach complicates the analysis of AAM budgets but does not provide additional insight. Isentropic pressure torques are believed to be similar to the TEM torques at the upper boundary of an annulus. The isentropic pressure torques are evaluated from data and found to differ in several respects from the TEM torques. Link to full paper:
  6. Torques and the Related Meridional and Vertical Fluxes of Axial Angular Momentum Authors: Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka Published: 21st July, 2004 Abstract: The budget equation of the zonally averaged angular momentum is analyzed by introducing belts of 1000-km width to cover the meridional plane from pole to pole up to an altitude of 28 km. Using ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA) data the fluxes of angular momentum are evaluated as well as the mountain and friction torques per belt. Generalized streamfunctions and velocity potentials are introduced to better depict the fluxes related to the angular momentum transferred at the ground during an event of mountain or friction torque. The variance of the total flux divergence per belt is one order of magnitude larger than those of the torques. All variances peak at midlatitudes. As a rule, the structure of the generalized streamfunctions changes little during an event; that is, the structure of the nondivergent part of the fluxes is stable. That of the divergent part, as represented by the velocity potential, undergoes a rapid change near the peak of a torque event. Positive friction torque events in midlatitude belts are preceded by a divergence of angular momentum fluxes in that belt, which is linked to the anticyclonic mass circulation needed to induce the positive torque. The divergence in the belt breaks down shortly before the torque is strongest. Angular momentum is transported upward from the ground after that. Much of the angular momentum generated in a midlatitude belt by positive mountain torques is transported out of the domain, but there is also a short burst of upward transports. Angular momentum anomalies linked to torque events near the equator tend to be symmetric with respect to the equator. Related fluxes affect the midlatitudes of both hemispheres. Link to full paper:
  7. Bring Back 1962-63

    Isentropic Pressure and Mountain Torques

    Isentropic Pressure and Mountain Torques Authors: Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka Published: 12th March, 2009 Abstract: The relation of pressure torques and mountain torques is investigated on the basis of observations for the polar caps, two midlatitude and two subtropical belts, and a tropical belt by evaluating the lagged covariances of these torques for various isentropic surfaces. It is only in the polar domains and the northern midlatitude belts that the transfer of angular momentum to and from the earth at the mountains is associated with pressure torques acting in the same sense. The situation is more complicated in all other belts. The covariances decline with increasing potential temperature (height). The role of both torques in the angular momentum budget of a belt is discussed. Link to full paper:
  8. Axial Angular Momentum: Vertical Fluxes and Response to Torques Authors: Joseph Egger and Klaus-Peter Hoinka Published: 4th November, 2003 Abstract: The horizontally averaged global angular momentum μ at a certain height reacts only to the vertical divergence of the angular momentum flux at least above the crest height of the earth's orography. The flux is tied to the torques at the surface. Data are used to evaluate the flux and the response of μ to the torques. It is shown that the accuracy of the data is sufficient for an investigation of this interaction. It is found that the horizontally averaged angular momentum in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere tends to be negative before an event of positive friction torque. Downward transports of negative angular momentum from these layers allow the angular momentum to further decrease near the ground, even shortly before the event although the friction torque is positive at that time. The impact of the mountains during this process is demonstrated. The ensuing positive response to the friction torque is felt throughout the troposphere. The final decay of this reaction involves downward transports of μ with typical velocities of ∼1–2 km day−1. The angular momentum in the lower troposphere tends to be negative before an event of positive mountain torque. There is a short burst of rapid upward transport of positive angular momentum during the event itself, which reaches the stratosphere within 1–2 days. A phase of decay follows with slow downward transport of positive angular momentum. Link to full paper:<1294%3AAAMVFA>2.0.CO%3B2
  9. The Dynamics of Intraseasonal Atmospheric Angular Momentum Oscillations Authors: Dr Klaus M. Weickmann, George N. Kiladis and Prashant D. Sardeshmuykh Published: 17th October, 1996 Abstract: The global and zonal atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) budget is computed from seven years of National Centers for Environmental Prediction data and a composite budget of intraseasonal (30–70 day) variations during northern winter is constructed. Regressions on the global AAM tendency are used to produce maps of outgoing longwave radiation, 200-hPa wind, surface stress, and sea level pressure during the composite AAM cycle. The primary synoptic features and surface torques that contribute to the AAM changes are described. In the global budget, the friction and mountain torques contribute about equally to the AAM tendency. The friction torque peaks in phase with subtropical surface easterly wind anomalies in both hemispheres. The mountain torque peaks when anomalies in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere and subtropical Southern Hemisphere are weak but of the same sign. The picture is different for the zonal mean budget, in which the meridional convergence of the northward relative angular momentum transport and the friction torque are the dominant terms. During the global AAM cycle, zonal AAM anomalies move poleward from the equator to the subtropics primarily in response to momentum transports. These transports are associated with the spatial covariance of the filtered (30–70 day) perturbations with the climatological upper-tropospheric flow. The zonally asymmetric portion of these perturbations develop when convection begins over the Indian Ocean and maximize when convection weakens over the western Pacific Ocean. The 30–70-day zonal mean friction torque results from 1) the surface winds induced by the upper-tropospheric momentum sources and sinks and 2) the direct surface wind response to warm pool convection anomalies. The signal in relative AAM is complemented by one in “Earth” AAM associated with meridional redistributions of atmospheric mass. This meridional redistribution occurs preferentially over the Asian land mass and is linked with the 30–70-day eastward moving convective signal. It is preceded by a surface Kelvin-like wave in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere that propagates eastward from the western Pacific region to the South American topography and then moves poleward as an edge wave along the Andes. This produces a mountain torque on the Andes, which also causes the regional and global AAM to change. Link to full paper:<1445%3ATDOIAA>2.0.CO%3B2
  10. What is the GSDM and how does it help with subseasonal weather forecasts? A YouTube Presentation Presentation By: Edward K Berry (Senior Weather-Climate Scientist) Presentation Event: American Meteorology Society - Student Chapter, College of DuPage, Chicago Presentation Date: 28th March, 2018 Summary: Leading meteorological scientists Ed Berry and Dr Klaus Weickmann jointly developed their GSDM (Global Synoptic Dynamic Model) while they were working at NOAA in the late 1990s and earlier years of this century. They also devised the GWO (Global Wind Oscillation) as a way of plotting and measuring the amounts of relative global AAM (Atmospheric Angular Momentum), frictional torque and mountain torque at different phases of the cycle. They became leaders in this specialist research which has been used to assist in understanding impacts on global weather patterns and upcoming changes up to a few weeks ahead. They left NOAA several years ago and Klaus Weickmann has retired. Ed Berry continues his excellent work on the GSDM and retains his lifelong passion to develop the model and its meteorological applications further. He recently gave a brilliant presentation about the model at an AMS meeting in Chicago. This is a one hour seminar with clear charts and explanations, ending with a question and answer session. I have watched it three times already and understand a little more about the GSDM from each viewing. For anyone wishing to learn more about AAM, the torques, the GWO and how they interact with other major teleconnections like phases of the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) and the MJO (Madden Julian Oscillation) then this is absolutely essential viewing. I also strongly recommend this for more advanced viewers as well. The presentation is right up-to-date and includes the 2018 SSW (Sudden Stratospheric Warming) event and links to key issues like climate change. Much of the presentation is slanted towards the North American climate and US weather patterns but it has a global significance and includes impacts on both hemispheres. Link to full presentation (1 hour and 4 minutes): I also reviewed this presentation on the main "Telconnections: A More technical Discussion" thread. This includes some examples of the charts used in the presentation. Click on this direct link to page 3 of the thread which contains the review (it is just over halfway down that page):
  11. Mountains, the Global Frictional Torque, and the Circulation over the Pacific–North American Region Authors: Klaus Weickmann Published: 2nd April, 2003 Abstract: The global mountain (τM ) and frictional (τF ) torques are lag correlated within the intraseasonal band, with τF leading τM. The correlation accounts for 20%–45% of their variance. Two basic feedbacks contribute to the relationship. First, the mountain torque forces global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) anomalies and the frictional torque damps them; thus, dτF/dt ∝ −τM. Second, frictional torque anomalies are associated with high-latitude sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies, which contribute to subsequent mountain torque anomalies; thus, dτM/dt ∝ τF. These feedbacks help determine the growth and decay of global AAM anomalies on intraseasonal timescales. The low-frequency intraseasonal aspect of the relationship is studied for northern winter through lag regressions on τF. The linear Madden–Julian oscillation signal is first removed from τF to focus the analysis on midlatitude dynamical processes. The decorrelation timescale of τF is similar to that of teleconnection patterns and zonal index cycles, and these familiar circulation features play a prominent role in the regressed circulation anomalies. The results show that an episode of interaction between the torques is initiated by an amplified transport of zonal mean–zonal momentum across 35°N. This drives a dipole pattern of zonal mean–zonal wind anomalies near 25° and 50°N, and associated SLP anomalies. The SLP anomalies at higher latitudes play an important role in the subsequent evolution. Regionally, the momentum transport is linked with large-scale eddies over the east Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that have an equivalent barotropic vertical structure. As these eddies persist/amplify, baroclinic wave trains disperse downstream over North American and east Asian topography. The wave trains interact with the preexisting, high-latitude SLP anomalies and drive them southward, east of the mountains. This initiates a large monopole mountain torque anomaly in the 20°–50°N latitude band. The wave trains associated with the mountain torque produce additional momentum flux convergence anomalies that 1) maintain the zonal wind anomalies forced by the original momentum transport anomalies and 2) help drive a global frictional torque anomaly that counteracts the mountain torque. Global AAM anomalies grow and decay over a 2-week period, on average. Over the Pacific–North American region, the wave trains evolve into the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern whose surface wind anomalies produce a large portion of the compensating frictional torque anomaly. Case studies from two recent northern winters illustrate the interaction. Link to full paper:<2608%3AMTGFTA>2.0.CO%3B2
  12. Uncertainty analysis of atmospheric friction torque on the solid Earth Authors: Haoming Yan and Yong Huang First Published: 11th December, 2015 Abstract: The wind stress acquired from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate models and QSCAT satellite observations are analyzed by using frequency-wavenumber spectrum method. The spectrum of two climate models, i.e., ECMWF and NCEP, is similar for both 10 m wind data and model output wind stress data, which indicates that both the climate models capture the key feature of wind stress. While the QSCAT wind stress data shows the similar characteristics with the two climate models in both spectrum domain and the spatial distribution, but with a factor of approximately 1.25 times larger than that of climate models in energy. These differences show the uncertainty in the different wind stress products, which inevitably cause the atmospheric friction torque uncertainties on solid Earth with a 60% departure in annual amplitude, and furtherly affect the precise estimation of the Earth's rotation. Link to Paper:
  13. Stochastic and oscillatory forcing of global atmospheric angular momentum Authors: Weickmann, K.M., W.A. Robinson, and C. Penland First Published: 27th June, 2000 Abstract: The temporal variability and forcing of global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) is studied using a three‐component Markov model derived from observed statistics of global AAM and the global torques. The model consists of stochastic forcing by the mountain (τM) and friction (τ *F) torque plus a pervasive negative feedback on AAM by the friction torque. AAM anomalies are damped at a 30‐day timescale and forced by torques having 1.5‐day ( τM) and 6‐day (τ *F) decorrelation timescales. A large portion of the intraseasonal variance and covariance of AAM, τM, and τF is accounted for by the Markov model. Differences between the modeled and the observed covariances are maximized in the 10‐ to 90‐day band and account for 10–30% of the variance when using data not stratified by season. An especially prominent deviation from the Markov model is the oscillatory forcing of AAM by the frictional torque at 30‐ to 60‐day periods. Additionally, there is greater coherent variance between τF and τM across the entire 10‐ to 90‐day band, with the frictional torque leading the mountain torque. This “feedback” between the global torques results from physical processes not represented in the Markov model. The synoptic characteristics of the stochastic mountain and frictional torques and of the oscillatory Madden‐Julian Oscillation are described. Link to Paper:
  14. The atmospheric angular momentum cycle during the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation Authors: Weickmann, K. M., S.J.S. Khalsa and J. Eischeid First Published: 8th October, 1992 Abstract: The period 1 December 1984 to 3 February 1985 was associated with strong intraseasonal fluctuations in both the global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and tropical convection. Consistent changes were observed in the length of day. The AAM budget for the 65-day period is examined here using circulation data from the National Meteorological Center. Surprisingly well-balanced global and zonal budgets are obtained for the vertically integrated AAM. This enables a closer examination of regional changes, to assess how they might be responsible for the changes in the global AAM. Both friction and mountain torques are important in the global AAM budget. The increase of AAM is associated first with a positive friction torque, then with a positive mountain torque. The subsequent decrease of AAM results from a negative friction torque. The accompanying regional changes are mostly confined to the Northern Hemisphere, with high global AAM associated with a stronger and southward-displaced subtropical jet. In the zonal budget, meridional AAM fluxes by the zonally asymmetric eddies are important and appear to lead the torques by a few days. The increase of AAM begins with a shift of the tropical convection from the east Indian to the west Pacific Ocean. The consequent enhancement of the trades east of the Philippines gives a positive friction torque. The friction torque also has a contribution from enhanced trades over Central America and the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which appear to be linked to an equatorward propagating upper-tropospheric wave over the region. A persistent high pressure anomaly subsequently develops to the east of the Himalayas, giving a positive mountain torque. The global AAM rises in response to these torques, but as the circumpolar vortex expands the trades are weakened, causing a negative friction torque and the final reduction of the AAM. Interestingly, no coherent signals are seen in the weak zonal-mean convection anomalies accompanying these AAM changes. Rather, the AAM budget suggests that the tropical Madden–Julian oscillation and the global AAM are linked through the interaction of Rossby waves generated by the tropical heating with a zonally varying ambient flow and with mountains. The surface stresses have both a local component related to the convection and a remote component induced by upper-tropospheric AAM fluxes. Link to Paper:<3194%3ATAAMCA>2.0.CO%3B2
  15. The tropical Madden-Julian oscillation and the global wind oscillation Authors: Klaus Weickmann and Edward Berry First Published: June 12th , 2008 Abstract: The global wind oscillation (GWO) is a subseasonal phenomenon encompassing the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and mid-latitude processes like meridional momentum transports and mountain torques. A phase space is defined for the GWO following the approach of Wheeler and Hendon (2004) for the MJO. In contrast to the oscillatory behavior of the MJO, two red noise processes define the GWO. The red noise spectra have variance at periods that bracket the 30-60 day band generally used to define the MJO. The MJO and GWO correlation accounts for 25% of their variance and crossspectra show well-defined phase relations. However, considerable independent variance still exists in the GWO. During MJO and GWO episodes, key events in the circulation and tropical convection derived from composites can be used for monitoring and for evaluating prediction model forecasts, especially for weeks 1-3. A case study during April-May 2007 focuses on the GWO and two ~30 day duration orbits with extreme anomalies in GWO phase space. The MJO phase space projections for the same time were partially driven by mountain torques and meridional transports. The case reveals the tropical-extratropical character of subseasonal events and its role in creating slowly evolving planetary-scale circulation and tropical convection anomalies Link to Paper:
  16. A gentle stroll through EP (Eliassen & Palm) flux theory Author: Oliver Bühler Published: 7th February, 2014 Abstract: The celebrated 1960 paper by Eliassen & Palm (hereafter EP) put on record several brilliant discoveries in the theory of linear waves on shear flows for rotating stratified fluid systems. These discoveries opened up a new perspective on linear wave dynamics in the atmosphere and on the nascent theory of nonlinear interactions between the waves and the mean flow. Arguably, the most important discovery was that of their eponymous wave activity flux vector in the meridional plane and of the conditions under which this important flux was non-divergent. In this short paper we will retrace some of the steps of EP and explore how their path-breaking discoveries came to be understood in the light of subsequent theories. Of course, an endeavour like this runs the risk of looking patronizing, if only because of 50 years of hindsight, but this is not intended: it was the power of their original discoveries that inspired five decades of further research, with new results still coming out today. Link to full paper: Direct Link Across to the Original "EP" Paper - "On the Transfer of Energy in Stationary Mountain Waves": Eliassen & Palm 1960 Paper
  17. Relation between variations in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semi-permanent centers of action Authors: Carl G. Rossby and Collaborators (Journal of Marine Research) Published: 1939 Abstract (not produced - snipped copy of introductory paragraph shown): Link to full paper:
  18. The layer of frictional influence in wind and ocean currents [1935] Authors: Rossby, Carl-Gustaf and Montgomery, Raymond B. Published: April, 1935 Abstract: The purpose of the present paper is to analyse, in a reasonably comprehensive fashion,the principal factors controlling the mean state of turbulence and hence the mean velocity distribution in wind and ocean currents near the surface. The plan of the investigation is theoretical but efforts have been made to check each major step or result through an analysis of available measurements. The comparison of theory and observations is made diffcult by the fact that in most cases measurements have been arranged without the aid of a working hypothesis concerning the dynamics of the effect studied;thus information is often lacking concerning parameters essential to the interpretation of the data. Link to full paper: 3 No 3.pdf;sequence=1
  19. Regional Sources of Mountain Torque Variability and High-Frequency Fluctuations in Atmospheric Angular Momentum Authors: Haig Iskenderian and David A. Salstein First Published: 23rd May, 1997 Abstract: The sources of high-frequency (⩽14 day) fluctuations in global atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) are investigated using several years of surface torque and AAM data. The midlatitude mountain torque associated with the Rockies, Himalayas, and Andes is found to be responsible for much of the high-frequency fluctuations in AAM, whereas the mountain torque in the Tropics and polar regions as well as the friction torque play a much lesser role on these timescales. A maximum in the high-frequency mountain torque variance occurs during the cool season of each hemisphere, though the Northern Hemisphere maximum substantially exceeds that of the Southern. This relationship indicates the seasonal role played by each hemisphere in the high-frequency fluctuations of global AAM. A case study reveals that surface pressure changes near the Rockies and Himalayas produced by mobile synoptic-scale systems as they traversed these mountains contributed to a large fluctuation in mountain torque and a notable high-frequency change in global AAM in mid-March 1996. This event was also marked by a rapid fluctuation in length of day (LOD), independently verifying the direct transfer of angular momentum from the atmosphere to solid earth below. A composite study of the surface pressure patterns present during episodes of high-frequency fluctuations in AAM reveals considerable meridional elongation of the surface pressure systems along the mountain ranges, thus establishing an extensive cross-mountain surface pressure gradient and producing a large torque. The considerable along-mountain extent of these surface pressure systems may help to explain the ability of individual synoptic-scale systems to affect the global AAM. Furthermore, midlatitude synoptic-scale systems tend to be most frequent in the cool season of each hemisphere, consistent with the contemporary maximum in hemispheric high-frequency mountain torque variance. Link to full paper:<1681%3ARSOMTV>2.0.CO%3B2