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  1. ENSO Modulation of MJO Teleconnections to the North Atlantic and Europe Authors: R. W. Lee, S. J. Woolnough, A. J. Charlton‐Perez and F. Vitart Published online: 25th November 2019 Abstract: The teleconnection from the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) provides a source of subseasonal variability and predictability to the North Atlantic‐European (NAE) region. The El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates the seasonal mean state, through which the MJO and its teleconnection pattern propagates; however, its impact on this teleconnection to the NAE re
  2. The NAO Troposphere–Stratosphere Connection Authors: Maarten H. P. Ambaum and Brian J. Hoskins Published online: 15th July, 2002 Abstract: Using monthly mean data, daily data, and theoretical arguments, relationships between surface pressure variations associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), tropopause height, and the strength of the stratospheric vortex are established. An increase in the NAO index leads to a stronger stratospheric vortex, about 4 days later, as a result of increased equatorward refraction of upward-propagating Rossby
  3. Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Authors: Peter Haynes Published By: "SPARC" - A Project of the World Climate Research Programme Published online: July, 2005 Introduction: It is widely accepted that the troposphere has a strong dynamical effect on the stratosphere, primarily through the upward propagation of waves, both low-frequency large-scale Rossby waves (‘planetary waves’) and high-frequency inertia-gravity waves. Understanding of this effect is based on simple theories of wave propagation (including the wellk
  4. On the Seasonality of the El Niño Teleconnection to the Amundsen Sea Region Authors: Yu Yeung Scott Yiu and Amanda C. Maycocka Published: 11th July, 2019 Abstract: The Amundsen Sea low (ASL) is a quasi-stationary low pressure system that affects climate in West Antarctica. Previous studies have shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates the position and strength of the ASL with the strongest teleconnection found in austral winter despite the amplitude of ENSO events generally being largest in austral autumn/summer. This study investigat
  5. The Interconnected Global Climate System—A Review of Tropical–Polar Teleconnections Authors: Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane Published: 29th June, 2018 Abstract: This paper summarizes advances in research on tropical–polar teleconnections, made roughly over the last decade. Elucidating El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on high latitudes has remained an important focus along different lines of inquiry. Tropical to polar connections have also been discovered at the intraseasonal time scale, associated with Madden–Juli
  6. A Teleconnection between the West Siberian Plain and the ENSO Region Authors: Stefan Liess, Saurabh Agrawal, Snigdhansu Chatterjee and Vipin Kumar Published: 19th December, 2016 Abstract: The Walker circulation is linked to extratropical waves that are deflected from the Northern Hemisphere polar regions and travel southeastward over central Asia toward the western Pacific warm pool during northern winter. The wave pattern resembles the east Atlantic–west Russia pattern and influences the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) region. A tripole pattern
  7. Linking Northern Hemisphere temperature extremes to Rossby wave packets Authors: G. Fragkoulidis, V. Wirth, P. Bossmann and A. H. Fink Published: 3rd February, 2018 Abstract: This work investigates the statistical linkage between upper‐tropospheric transient Rossby wave packets (RWPs) and lower‐tropospheric temperature extremes in the Northern Hemisphere during the period 1979–2015. Data from ERA‐Interim reanalyses are used for the diagnosis of RWP amplitude and temperature anomalies as well as the systematic examination of their connection. Areas o
  8. Carl-Gustaf Rossby: His Times, Personality, and Actions Authors: Norman A. Phillips Published: 1st June, 1998 Abstract: The many activities of Carl-Gustaf Rossby are described, beginning with his early adventures at sea, and presented in the context of the meteorological world of his time. His scientific ideas and papers are not discussed except for an important aspect of his typical approach to analysis of atmospheric and oceanic motion. His success in fostering interaction between different people and institutions is e
  9. Dr. Yanai’s Contributions to the Discovery and Science of the MJO Authors: Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang First Published: 5th May, 2016 Abstract: This chapter reviews Professor Michio Yanai’s contributions to the discovery and science of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Professor Yanai’s work on equatorial waves played an inspirational role in the MJO discovery by Roland Madden and Paul Julian. Professor Yanai also made direct and important contributions to MJO research. These research contributions include work on the vertically integrated
  10. Role of Finite-Amplitude Eddies and Mixing in the Life Cycle of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings Authors: Sandro W. Lubis, Clare S. Y. Huang, Noboru Nakamura, Nour-Eddine Omrani and Martin Jucker Published: 26th October, 2018 Abstract: Despite the advances in theories and data availability since the first observation of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in the 1950s, some dynamical aspects of SSWs remain elusive, including the roles of wave transience at finite amplitude and irreversible wave dissipation due to mixing. This is likely d
  11. MJO Phase Speed and Blocking - Presentation A presentation at the AMS 97th Annual meeting: Conference on “Fifth Symposium on Prediction of the MJO: Processes, Prediction and Impact” held at Washington State Convention Center between 23rd and 25th January, 2017 Presenters: Paul E. Roundy and R. M. Setzenfand Presentation Date: 23rd January, 2017 Presentation Summary: The phase speed of the MJO might be regulated by many different factors. Previous works have suggested that moist processes govern the phase speed. Yet, convection and rain
  12. Circulation Response to Fast and Slow MJO Episodes Authors: Priyanka Yadav and David M. Straus Published: 6th April, 2017 Abstract: Fast and slow Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) episodes have been identified from 850- and 200-hPa zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for 32 winters (16 October–17 March) 1980/81–2011/12. For 26 fast cases the OLR took no more than 10 days to propagate from phase 3 (convection over the Indian Ocean) to phase 6 (convection over the western Pacific). For 8 slow cases the propagation took at least 20
  13. Modulation of equatorial Pacific westerly/easterly wind events by the MJO and convectively‑coupled Rossby waves Authors: Martin Puy, J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne and E. Guilyardi Published: 16th June, 2015 Abstract: Synoptic wind events in the equatorial Pacific strongly influence the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution. This paper characterizes the spatio-temporal distribution of Easterly (EWEs) and Westerly Wind Events (WWEs) and quantifies their relationship with intraseasonal and interannual large-scale climate variab
  14. The Role of Downward Infrared Radiation in Arctic Amplification - Presentation Workshop Presentation: Aspen Global Change Institute, Aspen, Colorado Workshop Programme: “Understanding the Causes and Consequences of Polar Amplification” - June 12th -16th, 2017 Presenters: Steven Feldstein (+ Tingting Gong and Sukyoung Lee) Presentation Date: 12th June, 2017 Abstract: None Link to full video presentation (27 minutes): https://www.agci.org/lib/17s1/role-downward-infrared-radiation-arctic-amplification
  15. Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Pathway of Different El Niño Flavors in Stratosphere-Resolving CMIP5 Models Authors: N. Calvo, M. Iza, M. M. Hurwitz, E. Manzini, C. Peña-Ortiz, A. H. Butler, C. Cagnazzo, S. Ineson and C. I. Garfinkel Published: 10th May, 2017 Abstract: The Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric signals of eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño events are investigated in stratosphere-resolving historical simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), together with the role of th
  16. Importance of Late Fall ENSO Teleconnection in the Euro-Atlantic Sector Authors: Martin P. King, Ivana Herceg-Bulić, Ileana Bladé, Javier García-Serrano, Noel Keenlyside, Fred Kucharski, Camille Li and Stefan Sobolowski Published: 23rd July, 2018 Abstract: Recent studies have indicated the importance of fall climate forcings and teleconnections in influencing the climate of the northern mid- to high latitudes. Here, we present some exploratory analyses using observational data and seasonal hindcasts, with the aim of highlighting the pote
  17. Effect of Madden–Julian Oscillation Occurrence Frequency on the Interannual Variability of Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Wave Activity in Winter Authors: Feiyang Wang, Wenshou Tian, Fei Xie, Jiankai Zhang and Yuanyuan Han Published: 12th March, 2018 (on line: 1st June, 2018) Abstract: This study uses reanalysis datasets and numerical experiments to investigate the influence of the occurrence frequency of the individual phases of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) on the interannual variability of stratospheric wave activity in the middle an
  18. Are Multiple Tropical Cyclone Events Similar among Basins? Authors: Benjamin A. Schenkel Published: 22nd May, 2017 Abstract: The present study intercompares multiple tropical cyclone event (MTCE) characteristics among each global tropical cyclone (TC) basin using best-track data. Specific focus is placed on examining the number of MTCEs and TCs during MTCEs, the zonal distance between TCs during MTCEs, and the spatiotemporal separation between genesis events during MTCEs. The results suggest that the ratio of MTCEs relative to single TCs is substanti
  19. Kelvin Waves and Tropical Cyclogenesis: A Global Survey Authors: Carl J. Schreck III Published: 15th June, 2015 Abstract: Convectively coupled atmospheric Kelvin waves are among the most prominent sources of synoptic-scale rainfall variability in the tropics, but large uncertainties surround their role in tropical cyclogenesis. This study identifies the modulation of tropical cyclones relative to the passage of a Kelvin wave’s peak rainfall (i.e., its crest) in each basin. Tropical cyclogenesis is generally inhibited for 3 days before the crest and e
  20. Subseasonal Forecasts of Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves and the MJO: Activity and Predictive Skill Authors: Matthew A. Janiga, Carl J. Schreck III, James A. Ridout, Maria Flatau, Neil P. Barton, E. Joseph Metzger and Carolyn A. Reynolds Published: 30th March, 2018 (published online; 16th July, 2018) Abstract: In this study, the contribution of low-frequency (>100 days), Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and convectively coupled equatorial wave (CCEW) variability to the skill in predicting convection and winds in the tropics at wee
  21. Climate science in the tropics: waves, vortices and PDEs Authors: Boualem Khouider, Andrew J Majda and Samuel N Stechmann Published: 16th November, 2012 Abstract: Clouds in the tropics can organize the circulation on planetary scales and profoundly impact long range seasonal forecasting and climate on the entire globe, yet contemporary operational computer models are often deficient in representing these phenomena. On the other hand, contemporary observations reveal remarkably complex coherent waves and vortices in the tropics interacting ac
  22. Absolute and Convective Instability of the African Easterly Jet Authors: Michael Diaz and Anantha Aiyyer Published: 28th January, 2015 Abstract: The stability of the African easterly jet (AEJ) is examined using idealized numerical simulations. It is found that a zonally homogeneous representation of the AEJ can support absolute instability in the form of African easterly waves (AEWs). This finding is verified through a local energy budget, which demonstrates the presence of both upstream and downstream energy fluxes. These energy fluxes al
  23. The Genesis of African Easterly Waves by Upstream Development Authors: Michael Diaz and Anantha Aiyyer Published: 27th June, 2013 Abstract: A genesis mechanism for African easterly waves (AEWs) is proposed. In the same manner that new troughs and ridges in the midlatitudes form downstream of existing ones through a mechanism known as downstream development, it is proposed that new AEWs can be generated upstream of existing AEWs. A local eddy kinetic energy budget of the AEW that ultimately became Hurricane Alberto (2000) demonstrates that upstrea
  24. Direct and indirect impacts of Saharan dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei on tropical cyclone eyewall development Authors: Henian Zhang, Greg M. McFarquhar, William R. Cotton and Yi Deng Published: 20th March, 2009 Abstract: The mechanisms by which Saharan dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) impact tropical cyclone (TC) evolution were examined by conducting numerical simulations of a mature TC with CCN added from lateral boundaries. CCN can affect eyewall development directly through release of latent heat when activated and su
  25. Planetary Scale Intraseasonal Disturbances - Presentation A presentation at the AMS 33rd Conference on “Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology” held at Ponte Vedra, Florida, USA between 16th and 20th April, 2018 Presenters: Zeljka Fuchs, Socorro, NM and D. J. Raymond Presentation Date: 19th April, 2018  Presentation Summary: There are two planetary disturbances that by definition prefer long wavelengths. One moves eastward and is associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation, while another moves westward and is called the Rossby wave.
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