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Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)

 

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is a standardized index based on the observed sea level pressure differences between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia. The SOI is one measure of the large-scale fluctuations in air pressure occurring between the western and eastern tropical Pacific (i.e., the state of the Southern Oscillation) during El Niño and La Niña episodes. Negative values coincide with El Nino events and postive values with La Nina.

 

Data is available in graphical or monthly values from 1951 to date. Here is an example of both the graphical and tabular output:

 

SOI Graph Example.png

 

SOI Data Example.jpg

 

Link to graphical output: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/teleconnections/enso/indicators/soi/

 

Link to tabular data values: https://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/soi

 

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Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

 

The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is often described as a long-lived El Niño-like pattern of Pacific climate variability (Zhang et al. 1997). As seen with the better-known El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), extremes in the PDO pattern are marked by widespread variations in the Pacific Basin and the North American climate. In parallel with the ENSO phenomenon, the extreme phases of the PDO have been classified as being either warm or cool, as defined by ocean temperature anomalies in the northeast and tropical Pacific Ocean. When SSTs are anomalously cool in the interior North Pacific and warm along the Pacific Coast, and when sea level pressures are below average over the North Pacific, the PDO has a positive value. When the climate anomaly patterns are reversed, with warm SST anomalies in the interior and cool SST anomalies along the North American coast, or above average sea level pressures over the North Pacific, the PDO has a negative value. (Description courtesy of NOAA and Mantua 1999).

 

Several sources of data are available in graphical or monthly values from 1854 to date. Here is an example of both the graphical and tabular output available from the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean, a research collaboration between the University of Washington (UW) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):

 

PDO Graphics.jpg

 

PDO Data Example.jpg

 

Link to graphical output: http://research.jisao.washington.edu/pdo/graphics.html

 

Link to tabular data values: http://research.jisao.washington.edu/pdo/PDO.latest.txt

 

Link to NOAA graphics and data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/teleconnections/pdo/

 

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Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)

 

The AMO is an ongoing series of long duration changes in the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean, with cool and warm phases that may last for 20-40 years at a time and a difference of about 1°F between extremes. These changes are natural and have been occurring for at least the last 1,000 years. The AMO has affected air temperatures and rainfall over much of the Northern Hemisphere, in particular, North America and Europe. It is associated with changes in the frequency of North American droughts and is reflected in the frequency of severe Atlantic hurricanes. (Source: NOAA)

 

Several sources of data are available in graphical or monthly values from 1856 to date. Here is an example of both the graphical output available from the multi-organisational collaborative website "The State of the Ocean Climate" (involving NOAA) and the monthly data values available in tabular format from the NOAA/ERSL/PSD website:AMO Example graph.gif

 

AMO Example table.gif

 

Link to graphical output: https://stateoftheocean.osmc.noaa.gov/atm/amo.php

 

Link to tabular data output: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/timeseries/AMO/

 

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